A very short history of Dinosaurs.

Evolutionary relationships of dinosaurs. From Benton 2018.

On 20 February 1824, William Buckland published the first report of a large carnivore animal: the Megalosaurus. The description was based on specimens in the Ashmolean Museum, in the collection of Gideon Algernon Mantell of Lewes in Sussex, and a sacrum donated by Henry Warburton (1784–1858). One year later, the Iguanodon entered in the books of History followed by the description of Hylaeosaurus in 1833. After examined the anatomy of these three genera, Richard Owen erected the clade Dinosauria in 1842.

Dinosaurs likely originated in the Early to Middle Triassic. The closest evolutionary relatives of dinosaurs include flying pterosaurs and herbivorous silesaurids. Early ecological divergences in dinosaur evolution are signaled by disparity in dental morphology, which indicates carnivory in early theropods, herbivory in ornithischians, and omnivory in sauropodomorph (subsequently sauropodomorphs underwent a transition to herbivory).

Eoraptor lunensis, outcropping from the soil. Valle de la Luna (Moon Valley), Parque Provincial Ischigualasto, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina.

The oldest dinosaurs remains are from the late Carnian (230 Ma) of the lower Ischigualasto Formation in northwestern Argentina. Similarly, the Santa Maria and Caturrita formations in southern Brazil preserve basal dinosauromorphs, basal saurischians, and early sauropodomorphs. In North America, the oldest dated occurrences of vertebrate assemblages with dinosaurs are from the Chinle Formation. Two further early dinosaur-bearing formations, are the lower (and upper) Maleri Formation of India and the Pebbly Arkose Formation of Zimbabwe. These skeletal records of early dinosaurs document a time when they were not numerically abundant, and they were still of modest size.

During the Late Triassic period numerous extinctions, diversifications and faunal radiations changed the ecosystems dynamics throughout the world. Nevertheless, dinosaurs exhibited high rates of survival. According to the competitive model, the success of dinosaurs was explained in terms of their upright posture, predatory skills, or warm-bloodedness. In the opportunistic model, dinosaurs emerged in the late Carnian or early Norian, and then diversified explosively. The current model contains some aspects of both the classic competition model and the opportunistic model. In this model, the crurotarsan-dominated faunas were replaced by a gradual process probably accelerated by the ecological perturbation of the CPE (Carnian Pluvial Episode).

Ingentia prima outcropping from the soil.

In the Jurassic and Cretaceous dinosaurs achieved enormous disparity. Sauropodomorphs achieved a worldwide distribution and become more graviportal and increased their body size. Gigantism in this group has been proposed as the result of a complex interplay of anatomical, physiological and reproductive intrinsic traits. For example, the upright position of the limbs has been highlighted as a major feature of the sauropodomorph bauplan considered an adaptation to gigantism. However, the discovery of Ingentia prima, from the Late Triassic of Argentina, indicates that this feature was not strictly necessary for the acquisition of gigantic body size.

Ornithischian were primitively bipedal, but reverted to quadrupedality on at least three occasions: in Ceratopsia, Thyreophora and Hadrosauriformes. The presence of early armored dinosaurs (thyreophorans) in North America, Asia, and Europe, but their absent from the southern African record, suggests some degree of provinciality in early ornithischian faunas.

Archaeopteryx lithographica, specimen displayed at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. (From Wikimedia Commons)

Theropod dinosaurs also increased their diversity and exhibit a greater range of morphological disparity. The group underwent multiple parallel increases in brain size. The volumetric expansion of the avian endocranium began relatively early in theropod evolution. For instance, the endocranium of Archaeopteryx lithographica is volumetrically intermediate between those of more basal theropods and crown birds. The digital brain cast of Archaeopteryx also present an indentation that could be from the wulst, a neurological structure present in living birds used in information processing and motor control with two primary inputs: somatosensory and visual. The extensive skeletal pneumaticity in theropods such as Majungasaurus demonstrates that a complex air-sac system and birdlike respiration evolved in birds’ theropod ancestors. Anatomical features like aspects of egg shape, ornamentation, microstructure, and porosity of living birds trace their origin to the maniraptoran theropods, such as oviraptorosaurs and troodontids. In addition, some preserving brooding postures, are known for four oviraptorosaurs, two troodontids, a dromaeosaur, and one basal bird providing clear evidence for parental care of eggs.

Nonavian dinosaurs disappeared more or less abruptly at the end of the Cretaceous (66 mya). Birds, the only living dinosaurs, with more than 10,500 living species are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates.

 

References:

Benson, R. B. J. (2018). Dinosaur Macroevolution and Macroecology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 49(1).  doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110617-062231

Michael J. Benton et al. The Carnian Pluvial Episode and the origin of dinosaurs, Journal of the Geological Society (2018). DOI: 10.1144/jgs2018-049

Xing Xu, Zhonghe Zhou, Robert Dudley, Susan Mackem, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Gregory M. Erickson, David J. Varricchio, An integrative approach to understanding bird origins, Science, Vol. 346 no. 6215, DOI: 10.1126/science.1253293.

 

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Introducing Tratayenia rosalesi

A speculative reconstruction of Tratayenia rosalesi. From Porfiri et al., 2018.

Patagonia has yielded the most comprehensive fossil record of Cretaceous theropods from Gondwana, including Megaraptora, a clade of medium-sized and highly pneumatized theropods represented by Fukuiraptor, Aerosteon, Australovenator, Megaraptor, Murusraptor, and Orkoraptor, and characterized by the formidable development of their manual claws on digits I and II and the transversely compressed and ventrally sharp ungual of the first manual digit. The enigmatic nature of this group has been a matter of discussion since the description of the first megaraptoran, Megaraptor namunhaiquii in 1990s . 

The phylogenetic position of Megaraptora is still controversial. But despite the lack of consensus, megaraptorans themselves remain a well-supported, monophyletic clade. Now, a new megaraptoran theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of the Neuquén Group, sheds light on on these enigmatic predators.

Fossilized vertebrae and right hip bone of Tratayenia rosalesi. From Porfiri et al., 2018.

Tratayenia rosalesi is the first megaraptoran theropod described from the Santonian Bajo de la Carpa Formation of the Neuquén Group. The genus name is for Tratayén, the locality where the holotype was collected. The specific name honors Diego Rosales, who discovered the specimen in 2006.
The holotypic specimen (MUCPv 1162) consists of a well-preserved, mostly articulated series of dorsal and sacral vertebrae, two partial dorsal ribs, the right ilium, pubis and ischium fragments. Tratayenia is the first megaraptoran that unequivocally preserves the complete sequence of sacral vertebrae. The dorsal and sacral centra and neural arches of Tratayenia are unfused, suggesting that the specimen was a subadult at the time of death.

The elevated pneumaticity and morphological resemblance of the axial and pelvic elements of Tratayenia with Aerosteon riocoloradensis and Murusraptor barrosaensis suggests a particularly close relationships between these three taxa. Tratayenia is also the largest carnivorous taxon known from Bajo de la Carpa Formation, reinforcing the hypothesis that megaraptorids were apex predators in South America from the Turonian through the Santonian or early Campanian, following the extinction of carcharodontosaurids.

 

References:

Porfiri, J.D., Juárez Valieri, Rubé.D., Santos, D.D.D., Lamanna, M.C., A new megaraptoran theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Bajo de la Carpa Formation of northwestern Patagonia, Cretaceous Research (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2018.03.014.

Novas, F.E., 1998. Megaraptor namunhuaiquii gen. et. sp. nov., a large-clawed, Late Cretaceous Theropod from Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18, 4-9.