The transition from Triassic to Early Jurassic is marked by a major biotic crisis in the marine and terrestrial realms. In the oceans, this event eliminated conodonts and nearly annihilated corals, ammonites, brachiopods and bivalves. In land, most mammal-like reptiles and large amphibians disappeared, as well as early dinosaur groups. During the Jurassic (201-145 mya) the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea continued and accelerated with the opening of the North Atlantic by the rifting of Africa and North America, giving rise to the supercontinents of Laurasia and Gondwana. The sea level rise flooded continental areas around Pangaea, forming huge epicontinental seas, especially in northern Africa and eastern Laurasia (modern China). The world was predominantly warm with at least four times the present level of atmospheric CO2. The period is also characterized by the explosive adaptive radiation of dinosaurs and the diversification of the cycads.
The Early Jurassic climate was characterized by a global warming, with average summer temperatures that exceeded 35°C in low-latitude regions of western Pangaea where eolian sandstones testify to the presence of vast deserts (Holz, 2015). The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE; ∼183 mya) is considered as one of the most severe of the Mesozoic era. It’s associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion, mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming (Huang, 2014, Ullmann et al., 2014). The T-OAE has been extensively studied in the past three decades although there is no consensus about the causes or triggering mechanisms behind this event.
After the extinction of many carnivorous crurotarsan lineages (phytosaurs, ornithosuchids, rauisuchians) at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary, theropod dinosaurs increased their diversity and exhibit a greater range of morphological disparity. Sauropodomorphs also achieved a worldwide distribution and become more graviportal and increased their body size. The presence of early armored dinosaurs (thyreophorans) in North America, Asia, and Europe, but their absent from the southern African record, suggests some degree of provinciality in early ornithischian faunas (Brusatte et al., 2010).
By the Mid-Jurassic, Gondwana started to break up in different blocks: Antarctica, Madagascar, India, and Australia in the east, and Africa and South America in the west, with relatively warm sea-surface conditions (26–30◦C) from Mid-Jurassic (∼160Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (∼115Ma) in the Southern Ocean. There was a drastic climatic decline during the Late Callovian. This decline in temperature lasted about 2.6My and is know as the “Callovian Ice Age”. It has been interpreted in terms of an inverse greenhouse effect, triggered by drawdown of CO2 consequent upon excess carbón burial (Dromart et al, 2003). The Puchezh-Katunki impact crater in Russia is prior to the Callovian extinction event and is not considered as a factor for this biotic extinction event.
During the Late Jurassic, North America completed its separation from Gondwana, and Gondwana was split into a northern and southern continent by the rift system opening the proto-Indian Ocean. The geological and geochemical record suggest that low-latitude environments were arid and tropical ever-wet conditions were absent. Maximum plant diversity was concentrated at midlatitudes, whith forests dominated by a mixture of conifers, cycadophytes, pteridosperms, ferns, and sphenophytes.
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