Introducing Stegouros elengassen

Life reconstruction of Stegouros elengassen. Image credit: Luis Perez Lopez

Ankylosauria is a clade of herbivorous, armored ornithischian dinosaurs subdivided in two major clades: the Ankylosauridae and the Nodosauridae. The most derived members of this group are characterized by shortened skulls, pyramidal squamosal horns, and tail clubs. Fossil evidence of armored dinosaurs from Gondwana is scarce. They were present primarily in Asia and North America. Stegouros elengassen, a new specimen from the Late Cretaceous Dorotea Formation of southern Chile, offers new evidence that contributes to the understanding of the relationships among the ankylosaurs from Gondwana.

Stegouros lived about 72 to 75 million years ago, and reached 2 meters in lenght (six feet). The generic name is derived from the the Greek word “stego” (roof ) and the Greek word “uros”
(tail) in reference to the covered tail. The specific name “elengassen” comes from an armoured
beast in the mythology of the Aónik’enk people.

Skeletal anatomy of the S. elengassen holotype. From Soto-Acuña et al., 2021.

The holotype (CPAP–3165), represented by a nearly complete skeleton, semi-articulated, was discovered in 2017 at the lower section of the Dorotea Formation. The new specimen exhibits an unusual combination of characters. The skull and teeth, are classically Ankylosauria, but the pelvis and slender limb bones resemble Stegosauria. The most striking feature of Stegouros is the short, bizarre tail covered by seven pairs of large osteoderms, that are fused into a flat composite unit resembling a battle axe.

Phylogenetic analyses with five different datasets indicate that Stegouros was closer to Ankylosauria than to Stegosauria. It was grouped with the basal ankylosaurs Kunbarrasaurus (from the late Lower Cretaceous of Australia) and Antarctopelta (from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica) forming a monophyletic clade that split earliest from all other Ankylosauria. The study, led by Chilean paleontologists, proposes the clade Parankylosauriato include the first ancestor of Stegouros—but not Ankylosaurus—and all descendants of that ancestor (Soto-Acuña et al., 2021).




Soto-Acuña, S., Vargas, A.O., Kaluza, J. et al. Bizarre tail weaponry in a transitional ankylosaur from subantarctic Chile. Nature (2021).

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum and the Patagonian floras.

Spore-pollen species from the Eocene of southern South America. From Fernandez et al., 2021

The geological records show that large and rapid global warming events occurred repeatedly during the course of Earth history. Ecological models can predict how biodiversity is affected by those events, but only the fossil record provides empirical evidence about the impact of rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 on species diversity.

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO, ~40 Ma) was a transient period of global warming that interrupted the general cooling trend initiated at the end of the early Eocene climate optimum (EECO, ~49 Ma). The MECO is related to major oceanographic and climatic changes in the Neo-Tethys and also in other oceanic basins, and lasted about 500–600 Kyr. The MECO altered the pelagic ecosystem with repercussions on the food web structure. The lack of nutrients in the surface waters led to a significant decrease in planktonic foraminiferal accumulation rates, while autotroph nannoplankton accumulation rates remained stable.

Relative frequency of the most common plant groups across the MECO and Late Eocene. From Fernández et al., 2021

The MECO also influenced terrestrial biotas. A new study quantify the response of the floras of southern Patagonia to this warming event. The samples were collected from the Río Turbio Formation in southern Patagonia. The terrestrial palynological assemblage revealed a clear inverse relationship between the abundance of ferns and angiosperms. At the beginning of the MECO, ferns highly increase in abundance (with Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Osmundaceae as the most frequent families), while the abundance of angiosperms decreases dramatically. Podocarpaceae also increases from ~5 % to ~20%. At the core of MECO, ferns drop to a minimum, and angiosperms become dominant. Finally, at the end of the MECO ferns rise again to maximum values and angiosperms decrease.

Palynological analysis also revealed that floras in southern Patagonia were in average ~40% more diverse during the MECO than pre-MECO and post-MECO intervals. The penetration of neotropical migrant species to the highest latitudes along with the persistence of southern Gondwanan natives may have triggered the gradual increasing diversity that can be observed across the MECO.



Fernández, D.A., Palazzesi, L., González Estebenet, M.S. et al. Impact of mid Eocene greenhouse warming on America’s southernmost floras. Commun Biol 4, 176 (2021).

Giorgioni, M., Jovane, L., Rego, E.S. et al. Carbon cycle instability and orbital forcing during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum. Sci Rep 9, 9357 (2019).

Sonal Khanolkar, Pratul Kumar Saraswati & Karyne Rogers (2017) Ecology of foraminifera during the middle Eocene climatic optimum in Kutch, India, Geodinamica Acta, 29:2,181-193, DOI: 10.1080/09853111.2017.130084


A window into Late Triassic biodiversity.

Reconstruction of the paleocommunity of Cerro Las Lajas. Credit: Lucas Fiorelli.

The Ischigualasto Formation, formed along the western margin of Argentina during the breakup of Gondwana, represents one of the most continuous continental Triassic succesions in South America, and it is known worldwide for its tetrapod assemblage, which include the oldest known record of dinosaurs. The most accepted hypothesis gives the name “Ischigualasto” a Quechua origin, meaning “place where the moon sets”. A second hypothesis suggested that the name “Ischigualasto” has Diaguita roots and means “place of death”. Adolf Stelzner in 1889 published the first data on the geology of Ischigualasto, but it was not until 1911, that Bondenbender briefly refers to the fossils of the site. The Ischigualasto Formation consists of four lithostratigraphic members which in ascending order include the La Peña Member, the Cancha de Bochas Member, the Valle de la Luna Member, and the Quebrada de la Sal Member. The northernmost known outcrops of the Ischigualasto formation are exposed at a site know as Hoyada del Cerro Las Lajas, in La Rioja Province, consisting of more than 1,000 m of fluvial-channel and flood overbank deposits with high volcanic input. This site is known as the place where the holotype and only known specimen of Pisanosaurus mertii (PVL 2577) was found.

Ischigualasto Formation in the Hoyada del Cerro Las Lajas locality. From Desojo et al., 2020

In 1962, José F. Bonaparte, Rafael Herbst, Galileo J. Scaglia, and Martín Vince carried out an expedition to the site. Bonaparte’s field notes indicate that they collected rhynchosaur and cynodont material at the site, but never described. In 2013, on the occasion of the XVII Argentine Conference of Vertebrate Paleontology, a group of researchers lead by Julia Desojo, from the National University of La Plata Museum, improvised a brief exploration to the site. Over the course of three more expeditions between 2016 to 2019, the team collected fossils and rocks from various layers of the Las Lajas outcrop, and more than 100 new fossil specimens, including Teyumbaita, a extinct genus of hyperodapedontine rhynchosaur, only previously known in the Late Triassic beds of the Santa Maria Supersequence in southern Brazil.

Teyumbaita. From Desojo et al., 2020

The team analyzed samples of volcanic ash collected from several layers of the Las Lajas outcrops and found that the layers were deposited between 230 million and 221 million years ago. They also found a correlation between the Hyperodapedon and Teyumbaita biozones at the Hoyada del Cerro Las Lajas, respectively, to the lower and upper parts of the Scaphonyx-Exaeretodon-Herrerasaurus biozone in the Hoyada de Ischigualasto and to the upper Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone of the Santa Maria Supersequence in southern Brazil. Teyumbaita-rich faunas of both Brazil and Argentina persisted into the Norian, before it was eventually replaced by tetrapod assemblages that witnessed the humidity increase of southwestern Pangaean climate.

Reconstructed skeleton reflecting the traditional interpretation of Pisanosaurus (Royal Ontario Museum)

Pisanosaurus mertii was originally described by Argentinian paleontologist Rodolfo Casamiquela in 1967, based on a poorly preserved but articulated skeleton from the upper levels of the Ischigualasto Formation. The holotype and only known specimen (PVL 2577) is a fragmentary skeleton including partial upper and lower jaws, seven articulated dorsal vertebrae, four fragmentary vertebrae of uncertain position in the column, the impression of the central portion of the pelvis and sacrum, an articulated partial hind limb including the right tibia, fibula, proximal tarsals and pedal digits III and IV, the distal ends of the right and left femora, a left scapular blade (currently lost), a probable metacarpal III, and the impressions of some metacarpals (currently lost). The new study constrains the age of Pi. mertii as ca. 229 Ma, showing that this species is latest Carnian. Additonally, certain key anatomical features, like the external mandibular fossa and the anteroposteriorly short cervical vertebrae, indicate that Pisanosaurus is the earliest preserved Ornithiscian specimen.



Desojo, J.B., Fiorelli, L.E., Ezcurra, M.D. et al. The Late Triassic Ischigualasto Formation at Cerro Las Lajas (La Rioja, Argentina): fossil tetrapods, high-resolution chronostratigraphy, and faunal correlations. Sci Rep 10, 12782 (2020).

Federico L. Agnolín & Sebastián Rozadilla (2017): Phylogenetic reassessment of Pisanosaurus mertii Casamiquela, 1967, a basal dinosauriform from the Late Triassic of Argentina, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2017.1352623

Deforestation: A Lesson from the Permian Extinction

Satellite photo of Amazon fires. Credit: NASA

The recent fires at Amazonas, Gran Canaria (Spain), Australia, and Indonesia sparked international outcry. Climate change makes forests hotter and drier, thus more likely to sustain uncontrolled fires. But fires are also linked with deforestation. Almost 1 million km2 of Amazon forest has already been deforested, and a recent study indicates that the number of active fires in this August was actually three times higher than 2018. Deforestation is a threat to biodiversity and ecosystems stability. It also leads to the loss of cultural diversity, the alteration of the hydrological cycle and climate systems.

The geological records show that large and rapid global warming events occurred repeatedly during the course of Earth history. The End-Permian extinction event (EPE) serves as a powerful deep-time analogue for modern deforestation and diversity loss, with as much as 95% of the marine animal species and a similarly high proportion of terrestrial plants and animals going extinct . This great crisis ocurred about 252 million years ago (Ma) during an episode of global warming. A recent study focussed on the Sydney Basin, Australia, shows how the typical Permian temperate forest communities disappeared abruptly, followed by a short ‘dead zone’ characterized only by charcoal, wood fragments, and fungi, signatures of an interval of wildfire and saprotrophic breakdown of organic matter.

Global paleogeographic map for the Permian-Triassic transition showing the location of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province. From Vajda et al., 2019

Two palynological events marked the end-Permian Event: the ‘algal/fungal/acritarch event’ (a bloom of Reduviasporonites, and of acritarchs in marine environments); and the ‘spore-spike event’. The first event in post-extinction continental deposits has contributed to a continuing debate as to whether the EPE interval was marked by eustatic sea-level rise. The ‘spore-spike event’ indicates that many plant groups survived in regional refugia, possibly at higher altitudes, or in coastal settings where conditions were consistently cooler or wetter. Some of those survivors constituted the pioneer vegetation during the Early Triassic.

During the EPE the woody gymnosperm vegetation (cordaitaleans and glossopterids) were replaced by spore-producing plants (mainly lycophytes) before the typical Mesozoic woody vegetation evolved. Glossopterids were the prime contributors of biomass to the vast Permian coal deposits of Gondwana, therefore their disappearance had major implications for ecosystem structure. The very rapid appearance of drought-tolerant plant associations (dominated by conifers and the seed fern Lepidopteris) in the macroflora of the Sydney Basin, may represent immigration of drought-adapted biota from other regions of Pangea.

Spores and pollen identified in the post-extinction mudstone at the Frazer Beach section. From Vajda et al., 2019

The palynological record suggests that wooded terrestrial ecosystems took four to five million years to reform stable ecosystems, while spore-producing lycopsids had an important ecological role in the post-extinction interval. The disappearance of the Glossopteris that dominated the cool Permian wetland forest of Gondwana, had  enormous consequences for landscape coverage, ecosystem structure, food webs, and caused substantial perturbations to the hydrological and carbon cycles of the entire biosphere.

Since the industrial revolution, the wave of animal and plant extinctions that began with the late Quaternary has accelerated. Australia has lost almost 40 percent of its forests, and almost 20% of the Amazon has disappeared in last five decades.Calculations suggest that the current rates of extinction are 100–1000 times above normal, or background levels. If we want to stop the degradation of our planet, we need to act now.



V. Vajda et al. (2020), End-Permian(252Mya) deforestation, wildfires and flooding—An ancient biotic crisis with lessons for the present, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 529 (2020) 115875

Jos Barlow et al, Clarifying Amazonia’s burning crisis, Global Change Biology (2019). DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14872

The Tyrannosauroids from the Southern Hemisphere.

Santanaraptor lived in South America during the Early Cretaceous about 112 million years ago (From Wikimedia Commons).

Tyrannosauroidea, the superfamily of carnivorous dinosaurs that includes the iconic Tyrannosaurus rex, was mainly distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. However, a few specimens from Australia (Timimus hermani and the articulated pubes NMV P186046) and Brazil (Santanaraptor placidus), have been referred to this clade.

Santanaraptor was unearthed in 1996 in the Romualdo Group (Santana Formation). The holotype is a juvenile partial skeleton that may have reached 1.25 metres (4.1 ft) in length, and it was presumed to be similar to Dilong and Guanlong. It was first described as a coelurosaurian theropod by Alexander Kellner in 1999, but in 2014 Thomas Holtz classified Santanaraptor as the first tyrannosauroid known from Gondwana. Delcourt and Grillo (2018), also placed Santanaraptor within Tyrannosauroidea based on the following features: the absence of an accessory ridge on the lateral surface of the cnemial crest; the absence of a horizontal groove across the astragalar condyles anteriorly; a deep fossa on the medial surface of the femoral head, lateral to the trochanteric fossa; an ischial medial apron positioned along the anterior margin of its shaft in medial view; the lesser trochanter and the greater trochanter extending to approximately the same level proximally; the proximal margin of the femur is concave in posterior view due to a greater trochanter that is elevated substantially relative to the lateral portion of the proximal surface of the head; and a shallow femoral extensor groove on the anterior surface of the distal end that is expressed as a broad concave anterior margin in distal view but present as an extensive depression on the anterior surface of the femur.

Holotypic left femur of Timimus hermani (From Wikimedia Commons)

Timimus was unearthed in 1994 from Eumeralla Formation and shares similar features with Tyrannosauroidea, but due to the incompleteness of the Timimus holotype, is difficult to properly evaluate its phylogenetic position. The same applies to NMV P186046. It was suggested (Benson et al., 2012) that NMV P186046 and the Timimus holotype may represent a single taxon given their similar phylogenetic positions and congruent sizes, although they did not come from the same site.

Time-calibrated phylogeny of Tyrannosauroidea. From Delcourt and Grillo, 2018.

Tyrannosauroidea had a Eurasian distribution, but basal lineages of the newly proposed clade, Pantyrannosauria (the most inclusive clade, containing Tyrannosaurus rex and Dilong paradoxus, but not Proceratosaurus bradleyi), were distributed across Europe (Juratyrant, Eotyrannus and Aviatyrannis), North America (Stokesosaurus), South America (Santanaraptor), Australia (Timimus), and Asia (Dilong and Xiongguanlong). It was hypothesized that all basal lineages of Pantyrannosauria were already established in the Late Jurassic before the complete separation of Gondwana and Laurasia.

The fact that Santanaraptor and Timimus were relatively small suggests that Gondwanan tyrannosauroids remained small in comparison to northern species. The presence of Santanaraptor in a semi-arid environment with marine incursion also suggests that tyrannosauroids were not only found in humid paleoenvironments.


Rafael Delcourt, Orlando Nelson Grillo , Tyrannosauroids from the Southern Hemisphere: Implications for biogeography, evolution, and taxonomy. Palaeo (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.09.003

Apesteguía, S., Smith, N.D., Juárez Valieri, R., Makovicky, P.J., 2016. An Unusual New Theropod with a Didactyl Manus from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. PLoS One 11, 1–41. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157793

Benson, R.B.J., Rich, T.H., Vickers-Rich, P., Hall, M., 2012. Theropod fauna from southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality. PLoS One 7, e37122. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037122

Porfiri, J. D., Novas, F. E., Calvo, J. O., Agnolín, F. L., Ezcurra, M. D. & Cerda, I. A. 2014. Juvenile specimen of Megaraptor (Dinosauria, Theropoda) sheds light about tyrannosauroid radiation. Cretaceous Research 51: 35-55.

Holtz Jr, T.R., 2004. Tyrannosauroidea, in: Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., Osm (Eds.), The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 111–136.

A brief history of Mesozoic theropods research in Gondwana

Snout of the ceratosaurian Genyodectes serus

In the last decades, the study of Gondwanan non-avian theropods has been highly prolific, showing that the group reached a great taxonomic and morphological diversity comparable to that of Laurasia. The Mesozoic Gondwanan neotheropod record includes: coelophysoids, basal averostrans, ceratosaurids, abelisauroids, megalosauroids, carcharodontosaurids, megaraptorans, basal coelurosaurs, compsognathids, alvarezsauroids, unenlagiids, and basal avialans, as well as putative tyrannosauroids, ornithomimosaur-like forms, and troodontid. Therefore, the Gondwanan fossil record has been crucial to understand the evolution and global biogeography of dinosaurs during the Mesozoic.

The first probable theropod remains from Gondwana were discovered in Colombia by Carl Degenhard, a German engineer, in 1839. At that time the word “dinosaur” did not even exist yet. Although Degenhard identified them as bird footprints, his brief description suggests that they were tracks of bipedal dinosaurs. But it was not until 1896 that the first Gondwanan theropod was named by the French palaeontologist Charles Depéret as “Megalosaurus” crenatissimus from the Upper Cretaceous of Madagascar. Several theropod remains were described from India, Africa, and South America during the 19th century. These early fragmentary discoveries lead the authors of the late XIX and early XX centuries to interpret them as belonging the same lineages present in Europe and North America.

Elaphrosaurus bambergi (Museum für Naturkunde 4960, holotype) from the Upper Jurassic of Tanzania (Janensch, 1920)

In 1901, A. Smith Woodward described Genyodectes, based on fragmentary skull bones, including portions of both maxillas, premaxillae,  parts of the supradentaries, and some teeth, discovered by Santiago Roth in Chubut, at the end of the 1880s. Genyodectes remained as the most completely known  theropod from South American until the 1970s. In 2004, O. Rauhut concluded that Genyodectes is more closely related to Ceratosaurus than the more derived abelisaurs.

Between 1915 and 1933, the most relevant Gondwanan theropod discoveries were produced by the work of the German palaeontologists Frederich von Huene, Ernst Stromer, and Werner Janensch, including for the first time the publication of very informative partial skeletons, such as those of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus and Elaphrosaurus bambergi (Stromer, 1915; Janensch, 1920). Despite its low fossil record, Spinosaurus is one of the most famous dinosaur of all time. This gigantic theropod possessed highly derived cranial and vertebral features sufficiently distinct for it to be designated as the nominal genus of the clade Spinosauridae. But during and after the Second World War the influence of the German palaeontology in the research of Gondwanan theropods abruptly declined.

Skull and neck of Carnotaurus sastrei

By the 1960s, the Argentine biologist Osvaldo Reig, together with Rodolfo Casamiquela and José Bonaparte, began to explore the Mesozoic rocks of Argentina looking for fossil tetrapods. In 1985, Bonaparte published a note presenting Carnotaurus sastrei as a new genus and species and briefly describing the skull and lower jaw. It was collected in the lower section of La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province. The discoveries of Bonaparte and his collaborators resulted in the recognition of the Patagonian theropod record as the most relevant and informative among Gondwanan continents. Some of the theropod species discovered in Patagonia are known on the basis of skulls and fairly complete skeletons offering insights into the anatomy and phylogeny of abelisaurids, carcharodontosaurids, and maniraptorans.


Martín D. Ezcurra, and Federico L. Agnolín (2017). Gondwanan perspectives: Theropod dinosaurs from western Gondwana. A brief historical overview on the research of Mesozoic theropods in Gondwana. Ameghiniana 54: 483–487. Published By: Asociación Paleontológica Argentina

Novas, F.E., et al., Evolution of the carnivorous dinosaurs during the Cretaceous: The evidence from Patagonia, Cretaceous Research (2013), 

Buffetaut, E. 2000A forgotten episode in the history of dinosaur ichnology; Carl Degenhardt’s report on the first discovery of fossil footprints in South America (Colombia, 1839). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 171: 137140Google Scholar


Vegaviidae, a new clade of southern diving birds

Vegavis iaai by Gabriel Lio. / Photo: CONICET

The fossil record of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene modern birds in the Southern Hemisphere is fragmentary.  It includes Neogaeornis wetzeli from Maastrichtian beds of Chile, Polarornis gregorii and Vegavis iaai from the Maastrichtian of Antarctica, and Australornis lovei from the Paleogene of New Zealand. The phylogenetic relationships of these taxa have been variously interpreted by different authors. In a more recent analysis, Polarornis, Vegavis, Neogaeornis, and Australornis, are including in a new clade: Vegaviidae.

Vegaviids share a combination of characters related to diving adaptations, including compact and thickened cortex of hindlimb bones, femur with anteroposteriorly compressed and bowed shaft, deep and wide popliteal fossa delimited by a medial ridge, tibiotarsus showing notably proximally expanded cnemial crests, expanded fibular crest, anteroposterior compression of the tibial shaft, and a tarsometatarsus with a strong transverse compression of the shaft.

Histological sections of Vegavis iaai (MACN-PV 19.748) humerus (a), femur (b), polarized detail of humerus (c). Scale bar equals 10 mm for (a), (b) and 5 mm for (c). From Agnolín et al., 2017

The recognition of Polarornis, Vegavis, Neogaeornis, Australornis, and a wide array of isolated specimens as belonging to the new clade Vegaviidae reinforces the hypothesis that southern landmasses constituted a center for neornithine diversification, and emphasizes the role of Gondwana for the evolutionary history of Anseriformes and Neornithes.

The most informative source for anatomical comparison among Australornis, Polarornis, Vegavis as well as other southern avian is a recently published Vegavis skeleton (MACN-PV 19.748). Vegavis overlaps with Australornis in the proximal portion of the humerus, proximal part of the coracoid, scapula, and ulna; with Polarornis in the humerus, femur, and proximal end of the tibia; and with Neogaeornis in the tarsometatarsus.

Phylogeny with geographical distribution of Vegaviidae. From Agnolín et al., 2017.

The humerus is probably the most diagnostic element among anseriforms. In Vegavis and Australornis the humerus is notably narrow and medially tilted on its proximal half, and the deltopectoral crest extends for more than one third of the humeral length. The femur is well known both in Vegavis and Polarornis, and share a combination of characters absent in other Mesozoic or Paleogene birds, including strongly anteriorly bowed and anteroposteriorly compressed shaft (especially near its distal end)

Osteohistological analysis of the femur and humerus of V. iaai. shows a highly vascularized fibrolamellar matrix lacking lines of arrested growths, features widespread among modern birds. The femur has some secondary osteons, and shows several porosities, one especially large, posterior to the medullar cavity. The humerus exhibits a predominant fibrolamellar matrix, but in a portion of the anterior and medial sides of the shaft there are a few secondary osteons, some of them connected with Volkman’s canals, and near to these canals, there are a compact coarse cancellous bone (CCCB) with trabeculae. This tissue disposition and morphology suggests that Vegavis had remarkably high growth rates, a physiological adaptation that may be critical for surviving in seasonal climates at high latitudes, and  may also constitute the key adaptation that allowed vegaviids to survive the K/T mass extinction event.



Agnolín, F.L., Egli, F.B., Chatterjee, S. et al. Sci Nat (2017) 104: 87.

Jordi Alexis Garcia Marsà, Federico L. Agnolín & Fernando Novas (2017): Bone microstructure of Vegavis iaai (Aves, Anseriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of Vega Island, Antarctic Peninsula, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2017.1348503

A Permian lagerstätte from Antarctica.


Vertebraria solid-stele and polyarch roots colonised by fungal spores (From Slater et al., 2014)

Vertebraria solid-stele and polyarch roots colonised by fungal spores (From Slater et al., 2014)

A lagerstätte (German for ‘storage place’) is a site exhibiting an extraordinary preservation of life forms from a particular era. The term was originally coined by Adolf Seilacher in 1970. One of the most notable  is Burgess Shale in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia. The site, discovered by Charles Walcott in 1909, highlight one of the most critical events in evolution: the Cambrian Explosion (540 million to 525 million years ago). The factors that can create such fossil bonanzas are: rapid burial (obrution), stagnation (eutrophic anoxia), fecal pollution (septic anoxia), bacterial sealing (microbial death masks), brine pickling (salinization), mineral infiltration (permineralization and nodule formation by authigenic cementation), incomplete combustion (charcoalification), desiccation (mummification) and freezing. The preservation of decay-resistant lignin of wood and cuticle of plant leaves  is widespread, but exceptional preservation also extends to tissues.

The Toploje Member chert of the Prince Charles Mountains preserves the permineralised remains of a terrestrial ecosystem before the biotic decline that began in the Capitanian and continued through the Lopingian until the Permo-Triassic transition (Slater et al., 2014). During the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic, Antarctica occupied a central position within Gondwana and played a key role in floristic interchange between the various peripheral regions of the supercontinent.


Singhisporites hystrix, a megaspore with ornamented surface.

The fossil micro-organism assemblage includes a broad range of fungal hyphae and reproductive structures. The macrofloral diversity in the silicified peats is relatively low and dominated by the constituent dispersed organs of arborescent glossopterid and cordaitalean gymnosperms.  The fossil palynological assemblage includes a broad range of dispersed bisaccate, monosaccate, monosulcate and polyplicate pollen. The roots (Vertebraria), stems (Australoxylon) and leaves (Glossopteris) of the arborescent glossopterid exhibited feeding traces caused by arthropods, but the identification is  difficult since plant and arthropod cuticles look similar in thin section. Tetrapods are currently unknown from Permian strata of the Prince Charles Mountains as either body fossils or ichnofossils (McLoughlin et al., 1997, Slater et al., 2014).

Times of exceptional fossil preservation are coincident with mass extinctions, oceanic anoxic events, carbon isotope anomalies, spikes of high atmospheric CO2, and transient warm-wet paleoclimates in arid lands (Retallack 2011). The current greenhouse crisis delivers several factors that can promote exceptional fossil preservation, such as eutrophic and septic anoxia, microbial sealing, and permineralization.


Benton, M.J., Newell, A.J., (2013), Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Gondwana Research.

Rees, P.M., (2002). Land plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 30, 827–830.

Retallack, G., (2011), Exceptional fossil preservation during CO2 greenhouse crises?, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 307: 59–74.

Slater, B.J., et al., (2014), A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica, Gondwana Research.

Seilacher, A., (1970) “Begriff und Bedeutung der Fossil-Lagerstätten: Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Paläontologie“. Monatshefte (in German) 1970: 34–39.