The legacy of Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Haeckel and his assistant Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay, photographed in the Canary Islands in 1866. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel and his assistant Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay, photographed in the Canary Islands in 1866. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel  was born on February 16, 1834, in Potsdam, Prussia. He wanted to be a botanist and his hero was Alexander Humboldt, but his father, a lawyer and government official, thought the career prospects in botany were poor. Following his father’s advice, he studied medicine at the University of Berlin and graduated in 1857.

The explorations of Humboldt and Darwin permanently impressed him, and in 1859, E. Haeckel travelled to Italy and  spent some time in Napoli, exploring and discovering his talent as an artist. Then he went to Messina, where began to study radiolarians. In 1864, he sent to Darwin, two folio volumes on radiolarians. Goethe was also a strong influence in Haeckel, and lead him to think of Nature in anthropomorphic terms.

Ernst Haeckel's ''Kunstformen der Natur'' (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

He became the most famous champion of Darwinism in Germany and he was so popular that, previous to the First World War, more people around the world learned about the evolutionary theory through his work “Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte” (The History of Creation: Or the Development of the Earth and its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes) than from any other source. He also wrote more than twenty monographs about systematic biology and evolutionary history. He formulated the concept of  ”ecology” and coined the terms of “protist”,  “ontogeny”, “phylum”, “phylogeny”,  “heterochrony”, and “monera”.

Along with many other scientists, Haeckel was asked by the managers of the Challenger Expedition to examine and report on the expedition’s collections specifically for radiolarians, sponges and jellyfish. Haeckel’s Report on Radiolaria took him almost a decade. He reported a total of 739 genera and 4318 species of Radiolaria (polycystines, acantharians and phaeodarians). 

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae. From Wikimedia Commons.

His master work “Kunstformen der Natur” (Art forms of Nature) influenced not only science, but in the art, design and architecture of the early 20th century. Initially published in ten fascicles of ten plates each – from 1899 to 1904 -, coincided with his most intensive effort to popularise his monistic philosophy in Die Welträthsel and Die Lebenswunder.

But Haeckel was a man of contradictions. His belief in Recapitulation Theory (“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”) was one of his biggest mistakes. His affinity for the German Romantic movement influenced his political beliefs and Stephen Jay Gould wrote that Haeckel’s biological theories, supported by an “irrational mysticism” and racial prejudices contributed to the rise of Nazism. Despite those faults, he made great contributions in the field of biology and his legacy as scientific illustrator is extraordinary. In 1908, he was awarded with the prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal for his contributions in the field of science.

After the death of his wife in 1915, Haeckel became mentally frail. He died on 9 August 1919.

References:

Robert J. Richards, The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought, (2008), University of Chicago Press.

Breidbach, Olaf. Visions of Nature: The Art and Science of Ernst Haeckel. Prestel Verlag: Munich, 2006.

Heie, N. Ernst Haeckel and the Redemption of Nature, 2008.

Aita, Y., N. Suzuki, K. Ogane, T. Sakai & Y. Tanimura, 2009. Study and reexamination of the Ernst Haeckel Radiolaria Collection. Fossils (Japanese Journal of the Palaeontological Society of Japan), 85, 1–2.

David Lazarus, The legacy of early radiolarian taxonomists, with a focus on the species published by early German workers, Journal of Micropalaeontology 2014, v.33; p3-19.

 

”Kunstformen der Natur” (Art forms of Nature).

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae. From Wikimedia Commons.

”Kunstformen der Natur” (Art forms of Nature) was Ernst Haeckel‘s master work. Initially published in ten fascicles of ten plates each – from 1899 to 1904 -, coincided with his most intensive effort to popularise his monistic philosophy in Die Welträthsel and Die Lebenswunder. For Haeckel ‘Beauty’, constituted one of the three pillars of Monism, alongside the ‘Good’ and the ‘True’. Haeckel’s monism,  argued that there is no fundamental difference between organic and inorganic nature, that is, life differed from inorganic nature only in virtue of the degree of its organization. In the introduction to Kunstformen der Natur, Haeckel wrote: ‘Nature generates in her lap an inexhaustible abundance of wonderful forms, whose beauty and diversity surpass by far all art forms produced by man’. He firmly believed that a reformed, naturalistic art, would help to emancipate people from repressive political and religious authorities who maintain their domination over the people by fostering ignorance and superstition among them (Heie) He proposed that instead of Christianity, it should be monism that becomes the basis of education and civic life.

E. Haeckel's illustrations of forams: Thalamophora - Globigerina

E. Haeckel’s illustrations of forams: Thalamophora – Globigerina

Goethe was a strong influence in Haeckel, and leads him to think of Nature in anthropomorphic terms. At the beginning of Generelle Morphologie, Haeckel cited the words of the poet from his essay ‘Ode to Nature’:

Nature eternally creates new forms; what exists now has never before been; what was will not come again: everything is new and yet ever the old. In her there is an eternal life, becoming and movement. She is eternally changing, and never stands still for an instant. She has no concept for ‘remaining’, and she has placed her curse on standing still. She is firm: her step is measured, her laws unalterable. She thought and ponders constantly; not as a man, but as Nature. To everyone she appears in a particular form. She conceals herself in a thousand names and terms, and is always the same.

Haeckel’s experiences in Italy also had an enduring influence on the later formulation of his aesthetic theories. Other great influence was Alexander Humboldt’s Ansichten der Natur  (Aspects of Nature, 1808), in which Haeckel found  vivid depictions of the flora, fauna and geological features of the various topographical regions that Humboldt encountered during his research expeditions, most notably his famous excursion into the interior of South America between 1799 and 1804.

Haeckel_Trochilidae

Ernst Haeckel – Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 99: Trochilidae .

But Haeckel was a man of contradictions. His belief in Recapitulation Theory (“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”) was one of his biggest mistakes. His affinity for the German Romantic movement influenced his political beliefs and Stephen Jay Gould wrote that Haeckel’s biological theories, supported by an “irrational mysticism” and racial prejudices contributed to the rise of Nazism. Despite those faults, he made great contributions in the field of biology and his legacy as scientific illustrator is extraordinary. “Kunstformen der Natur” (Art forms of Nature) influenced not only in science, but in the art, design and architecture of the early 20th century.

In 1908, Haeckel was awarded with the prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal for his contributions in the field of science. After the death of his wife in 1915, Haeckel became mentally frail. Three years later sold his house to the Carl Zeiss foundation and it presently contains a historic library.

 

References:

Breidbach, Olaf. Visions of Nature: The Art and Science of Ernst Haeckel. Prestel Verlag: Munich, 2006.

Heie, N. Ernst Haeckel and the Redemption of Nature, 2008.

Richards, Robert J.  The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought, (2008), University of Chicago Press.

Haeckel and the legacy of early radiolarian taxonomists.

Ernst Haeckel and his assistant Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay, photographed in the Canary Islands in 1866. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel and his assistant Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay, photographed in the Canary Islands in 1866. From Wikimedia Commons.

In the nineteenth century, the study of radiolarians was the domain of German scientists. These early German workers laid the foundation for all future work with this group of organisms, both living and fossil.

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795–1876) made a series of special monographs from 1838 to 1875 and named the group Polycystina. He described a half-dozen species of both Spumellaria and Nassellaria. Ehrenberg’s microscopic researches also included diatoms and  fossil cyst of dinoflagellates. His book “Mikrogeologie” (1854) has many illustrations of a great number of microfossils.

Many of Ehrenberg’s early radiolarian species descriptions come from Neogene biosiliceous sediments of Italy. Despite the fact he worked before the concept of type specimens for species had become established, Ehrenberg not only documented most of his species with published figures, but preserved the original material and microscope preparations for future generations of scientists to study (Lazarus 2014).

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg and Johannes Müller. Source: Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin and Humboldt Universität, Berlin.

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg and Johannes Müller. Source: Museum für Naturkunde,
Berlin and Humboldt Universität, Berlin.

Johannes Müller (1801–1858), one of the most famous German biologists of his generation, published three substantial papers on radiolarians. He described a total of 69 species, including both polycystines and acantharians. As a professor on Berlin’s Medical Faculty, he  influenced a great number of students. Among them were Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) and Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902).

Like  Ehrenberg, Müller never believed that species had evolved over time, and he died before the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species.

After Müller’s death, E. Haeckel focused on the group last studied by his friend and professor: the radiolarians. With a copy of Müller’s paper and a wealth of material available off Messina, Haeckel began the first of his major studies of nature.

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In 1862, Haeckel made the first complete  classificatory system for the Radiolaria and produced finely detailed drawings of them in his book: “Die Radiolarien”. He dedicated this monograph to Müller. In this work, he  included polycystines, phaeodarians and acantharians.

In 1864, Haeckel sent to Darwin, two folio volumes on radiolarians. The gothic beauty of these drawings impressed Darwin. He wrote to Haeckel that “were the most magnificent works which I have ever seen, and I am proud to possess a copy from the author”.

Haeckel became the most famous champion of Darwinism in Germany and he was so popular that, previous to the First World War, more people around the world learned about the evolutionary theory through his work “Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte” (The History of Creation: Or the Development of the Earth and its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes) than from any other source. His study of radiolarians established Haeckel as a young scientist of importance. Later, Haeckel focused his research in the more general aspects of evolution and development.

Ernst Haeckel's ''Kunstformen der Natur'' (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

Along with many other scientists, Haeckel was asked by the managers of the Challenger Expedition soon after the ship’s return to examine and report on the expedition’s collections specifically for radiolarians, sponges and jellyfish. Haeckel’s Report on Radiolaria took him almost a decade.

His final report was published in 1887 and summarized and subsumed all prior work on radiolarians up to that point, including, for example, many of Ehrenberg’s species and genera. But while Ehrenberg eschewed higher taxa, except for a minimally adequate number of obvious, high-level groupings, Haeckel did the opposite thing and introduced a much enlarged and substantially more complex higher-level taxonomy for the radiolaria generating numerous duplicate lower-level categories, including species, which led to an unusually large percentage of Haeckel’s named species being ignored as redundant or meaningless (Lazarus, 2014).

In 1904, Haeckel published his master work “Kunstformen der Natur” (Art Forms of Nature) and helped to popularize radiolarians among scientists and the general audience.

Radiolaria illustration from the Challenger Expedition 1873–76. From Wikimedia Commons.

Radiolaria illustration from the Challenger Expedition 1873–76. From Wikimedia Commons.

Karl Alfred Ritter von Zittel (1839-1904), was a prominent German paleontologist.  His early research was in minerals and petrography. In 1876, he published “Ueber einige fossile Radiolarien aus der norddeutschen Kreiden. Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft” where he described Mesozoic radiolarians in northern Germany. Many of the species names proposed by Zittel are still valid today.

David Rüst (1831–1916) published 10 papers on radiolarians. Although he was not the first to describe Mesozoic radiolarians, he was certainly the most prolific describing over 900 new species of fossil radiolarians from Mesozoic and even Palaeozoic rocks from Europe and North America.

 

References:

David Lazarus, The legacy of early radiolarian taxonomists, with a focus on the species published by early German workers, Journal of Micropalaeontology 2014, v.33; p3-19.

Robert J. Richards, The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought, (2008), University of Chicago Press.

Ernst Haeckel, the scientist as an artist.

Ernst Haeckel, 1860. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel, 1860. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel was born on February 16, 1834, in Potsdam, Prussia. He grew up in Merseburg, where his father was a government official. He studied medicine to please his family, at the University of Berlin and graduated in 1857. But his real passion was biology, something he discovered while he was still a medicine student and his professor Johannes Müller, physiologist and anatomist, took him on a summer expedition to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea.

In 1859, when Haeckel was 25, travelled to Italy with the help of his parents. Haeckel spent some time in Napoli, exploring and discovering his talent as an artist. Then he went to Messina, where began to study radiolarians. Like Goethe and Humboldt, his science was influenced by deep his aesthetic aspirations and those little exquisite creatures, satisfied both.

Ernst Haeckel's ''Kunstformen der Natur'' (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” (1904), showing Radiolarians of the order Stephoidea. From Wikimedia Commons.

In 1864, young Haeckel sent to Darwin, two folio volumes on radiolarians. The gothic beauty of these drawings impressed Darwin. He wrote to Haeckel that “were the most magnificent works which I have ever seen, and I am proud to possess a copy from the author“.

Haeckel became the most famous champion of Darwinism in Germany and he was so popular that, previous to the First World War, more people around the world learned about the evolutionary theory through his work “Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte” (The History of Creation: Or the Development of the Earth and its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes) than from any other source.

Radiolaria illustration from the Challenger Expedition 1873–76. From Wikimedia Commons.

Radiolaria illustration from the Challenger Expedition 1873–76. From Wikimedia Commons.

He was one of the first to state that humans evolved from apes and life evolved from non-living matter. He claimed that evidence of human evolution could be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).  Eugene Dubois, inspired by Haeckel’s ideas, went to Indonesia and found the fossil remains of a hominid,  later reclassified as Homo erectus.

He also wrote more than twenty monographs about systematic biology and evolutionary history, among them his studies of radiolarians, medusae and sponges are the most popular. He formulated the concept of  ”ecology” and coined the terms of “protist”,  “ontogeny”, “phylum”, “phylogeny”,  “heterochrony”, and “monera”.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae.  From Wikimedia Commons.

Ernst Haeckel’s ”Kunstformen der Natur” showing various sea anemones classified as Actiniae. From Wikimedia Commons.

But Haeckel was a man of contradictions. His belief in Recapitulation Theory (“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”) was one of his biggest mistakes. His affinity for the German Romantic movement influenced his political beliefs and Stephen Jay Gould wrote that Haeckel’s biological theories, supported by an “irrational mysticism” and racial prejudices contributed to the rise of Nazism.

Despite those faults, he made great contributions in the field of biology and his legacy as scientific illustrator is extraordinary. His master work “Kunstformen der Natur” (Art forms of Nature) influenced not only in science, but in the art, design and architecture of the early 20th century.

In 1908, Haeckel was awarded with the prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal for his contributions in the field of science. After the death of his wife in 1915, Haeckel became mentally frail. Three years later sold his house to the Carl Zeiss foundation and it presently contains a historic library.

Ernst Haeckel died on August 9, 1919 in Germany at the age of 85.

References:

Robert J. Richards, The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought, (2008), University of Chicago Press.