Introducing Isaberrysaura

Isaberrysaura skull in lateral view and maxillary teeth (Adapted from Salgado et al., 2017)

Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. is the first dinosaur recovered in the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Neuquén Province, Argentina), and the first neornithischian dinosaur known from the Jurassic of South America. So far, the South American record of Jurassic ornithischian dinosaurs was limited to a few specimens belonging to Heterodontosauriformes, a clade of small-sized forms that survived in Europe up to the Early Cretaceous. The name Isaberrysaura is derived from “Isa Berry” (Isabel Valdivia Berry, who reported the initial finding) and the Greek word “saura” (lizard).

The holotype of Isaberrysaura is an incomplete articulated skeleton with an almost complete skull, and a partial postcranium consisting of 6 cervical vertebrae, 15 dorsal vertebrae, a sacrum with a partial ilium and an apparently complete pubis, 9 caudal vertebrae, part of a scapula, ribs, and unidentifiable fragments. One of the most notable features of the discovery is the presence of permineralized seeds in the middle-posterior part of the thoracic cavity. The seeds were assigned to the Cycadales (Zamiineae) on the basis of a well-defined coronula in the micropylar region. The findings suggest the hypothesis of interactions (endozoochory) between cycads and dinosaurs, especially in the dispersion of seeds.

Gut content of Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. (a–c), seeds of cycads (c), and other seeds (s); rib (r). From Salgado et al., 2017

The cranium of Isaberrysaura is reminiscent of that of the thyreophorans. The skull is estimated to be 52 cm long and 20 cm wide across the orbits. The jugal is triradiate and the nasals are ~20 cm long. There are two supraorbital bones; one is elongated (~10 cm), as in stegosaurs, and the other element interpreted as a posterior supraorbital is located on the posterior margin of the orbit. It has at least six premaxillary teeth, and there is no diastema between the premaxillary and the maxillary tooth row. Despite the many similarities between Isaberrysaura and the thyreophorans, the phylogenetic analysis indicates that Isaberrysaura is a basal ornithopod, suggesting that both Thyreophora and neornithischians could have achieved significant convergent features.


Salgado, L. et al. A new primitive Neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with gut contents. Sci. Rep. 7, 42778; doi: 10.1038/srep42778 (2017)

From Argentina with Love: Top Fossils of 2016

Geographic provenance and speculative reconstruction of the gigantic titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. (From González Riga  et al., 2016; Credit: Scientific Reports)

Since the discovery of dinosaur remains in the Neuquen basin in 1882, Argentina has gained the title of Land of the Giants. And 2016 has brought us amazing fossil discoveries. From Notocolossus to Gualicho, my fossil pick for this year are:

  • Notocolossus

Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina is one of the largest known dinosaurs. The name derived from the Greek notos (southern) and the Latin colossus, in reference to the gigantic size and Gondwanan provenance of the new taxon. The species name honours Dr. Jorge González Parejas, who provided legal guidance on the research, protection, and preservation of dinosaur fossils from Mendoza Province. The holotype of Notocolossus (UNCUYO-LD 301) consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull. It contains an anterior dorsal vertebra, an anterior caudal vertebra, the right humerus (with 1.76 m in length), and the proximal end of the left pubis. The pes of  Notocolossus is comparatively shorter and more mediolaterally symmetrical than those of other titanosaurs, and indeed, most other sauropods. Notocolossus also presents truncated unguals, characteristics otherwise unknown in the Sauropoda.

Cranium of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi in right lateral view. Scale bar = 10 cm. (From Martínez et al., 2016)

Cranium of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi in right lateral view. Scale bar = 10 cm. (From Martínez et al., 2016)

  • Sarmientosaurus

Another remarkable new species of titanosaurian sauropod was Sarmientosaurus musacchioi. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. The new titanosaur comes from the Lower Member of the Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation on the Estancia Laguna Palacios near the village of Buen Pasto in south-central Chubut Province, central Patagonia, Argentina. It is the most basal known titanosaur to be represented by a well-preserved skull. Furthermore, the cranial endocast preserves some of the most complete information about the brain and sensory system for any sauropod.

Scapulocoracoid of Viavenator exxoni gen. et sp. nov. MAU-Pv-LI-530. in lateral view. Scale bar: 10 cm

Scapulocoracoid of Viavenator exxoni in lateral view. Scale bar: 10 cm (a, acromion; cf, coracoid foramen; gc, glenoid cavity; pvp, posteroventral process. From Filippi et al., 2016)

  • Viavenator

The holotype of Viavenator exxoni was found in the outcrops of the Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous), northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The new taxon belongs to the South American clade of abelisaurid and possesses, among other characteristics, hypertrophied structures in the presacral axial skeleton. The name derives from the latin word ‘Via’ (road) and ‘venator’ (hunter), meaning the hunter of the road; ‘exxoni’ is in recognition of Exxonmobil’s commitment to the preservation of paleontological heritage of the La Invernada area, Rincón de los Sauces, Neuquen, Patagonia Argentina.

Right postorbital (holotype) of Taurovenator violentei gen. et sp. nov. A, lateral view

Right postorbital (holotype) of Taurovenator violentei gen. et sp. nov. A, lateral view. Scale bar: 3 cm (From Motta et al., 2016)

  • Taurovenator.

Taurovenator violantei gen. et sp. nov. was is a medium-sized carcharodontosaurid theropod from the Huincul Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in northwestern Río Negro province, Patagonia, Argentina. The generic name derives from the Latin words “tauro” (Bull) and “venator” (Hunter). The specific name honours Enzo Violante, owner of the farm where the specimen was discovered. Taurovenator is similar in gross morphology to Giganotosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, and Mapusaurus, but shows two unique features: the presence of a horn-like structure in the orbital brow and the presence of an excavation housed at the posterodorsal surface of the eye socket.

Different appendicular elements of Murusraptor in their original burial positions (From Coria et al., 2016)

Different appendicular elements of Murusraptor in their original burial positions (From Coria et al., 2016)

  • Murusraptor

Murusraptor barrosaensis, from the Upper Cretaceous of Neuquén Province, Argentina, belongs to a Patagonian radiation of megaraptorids together with Aerosteon, Megaraptor and Orkoraptor. Murusraptor, meaning “Wall Raptor”, was discovered in a canyon wall in 2001 during an expedition to Sierra Barrosa in northwestern Patagonia. The holotype specimen includes much of the skull, axial skeleton, pelvis and tibia. The braincase is intact and most of the sutures are still visible, indicating that this was not a fully mature animal. Murusraptor barrosaensis is unique in having anterodorsal process of lacrimal longer than height of preorbital process; sacral ribs hollow and tubelike; short ischia distally flattened and slightly expanded dorsoventrally. Murusraptor also exhibits some characters that are interpreted as convergencies of this taxon with non-tyrannosauroid theropods, including lacrimal with a small pneumatic recess; and a highly pneumatic braincase.

Gualicho shinyae, at the Centro Cultural de la Ciencia.

Gualicho shinyae, at the Centro Cultural de la Ciencia.

  • Gualicho

Gualicho was discovered on a paleontological expedition led by Sebastian Apesteguía in 2007. The name derived from the Gennaken (Northern Tehuelche languaje) watsiltsüm, an old goddess now considered a source of misfortune. The name was chosen to reflect the difficult circumstances surrounding the discovery and study of the specimen. The specific name honors Ms. Akiko Shinya, Chief Fossil Preparator at the Field Museum. The specimen exhibits a new and unusual combination of characters observed in various remotely related clades including ceratosaurs, tyrannosaurids, and megaraptorans. The didactyl manus with a semilunate distal carpal are indicative of derived tetanuran affinities, while the expanded posterior margin of the metatarsal III proximal articulation, are shared with ceratosaurs. The reduced forelimbs with didactyl manus are similar to those of the tyrannosaurids. However, in tyrannosaurids, the carpal elements are reduced and proximodistally flattened, whereas in Gualicho the semilunate and scapholunare carpals retain a more complex shape typical of the carpal elements of most non-coelurosaurian tetanurans. In addition, the manus of Gualicho differs from tyrannosaurids in having a proportionately more robust metacarpal I with a rectangular, rather than triangular, proximal articulation in end view.



Bernardo J. González Riga et al. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot, Scientific Reports (2016). DOI: 10.1038/srep19165

Martínez R.D.F. et al. 2016. A Basal Lithostrotian Titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a Complete Skull: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of Titanosauria. PLoS ONE 11 (4): e0151661; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151661

Leonardo S. Filippi, Ariel H. Méndez, Rubén D. Juárez Valieri and Alberto C. Garrido (2016). «A new brachyrostran with hypertrophied axial structures reveals an unexpected radiation of latest Cretaceous abelisaurids». Cretaceous Research 61: 209-219. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.12.018

Matías J. Motta, Alexis M. Aranciaga Rolando, Sebastián Rozadilla, Federico E. Agnolín, Nicolás R. Chimento, Federico Brissón Egli, and Fernando E. Novas (2016). «New theropod fauna from the Upper Cretaceous (Huincul Formation) of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina». New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 71: 231-253

Rodolfo A. Coria, Philip J. Currie. A New Megaraptoran Dinosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda, Megaraptoridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. PLOS ONE, 2016; 11 (7): e0157973 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157973

Apesteguía S, Smith ND, Juárez Valieri R, Makovicky PJ (2016) An Unusual New Theropod with a Didactyl Manus from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0157793. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157793

High variation in postnatal development of Early Dinosaurs.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History Coelophysis block, originally AMNH Block XII collected in 1948 by Colbert and crew

Cleveland Museum of Natural History Coelophysis block, originally AMNH Block XII collected in 1948 (From Wikimedia Commons)

Birds originated from a theropod lineage more than 150 million years ago. Their evolutionary history is one of the most enduring and fascinating debates in paleontology. They are members of the theropod dinosaur subgroup Coelurosauria, a diverse clade that includes tyrannosauroids and dromaeosaurids, among others. Features like “hollow” bones and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity, feathers, a unique forelimb digit formula, endothermy, and rapid growth rate arose in non-avian dinosaurs in a gradual process occurring over tens of millions of years.

In contrast with all other living reptiles, birds grow extremely fast and possess unusually low levels of intraspecific variation during postnatal development, suggesting that this avian style of development must have evolved after its most recent common ancestor with crocodylians but before the origin of Aves. Most studies indicates that the low levels of variation that characterize avian ontogeny were present in close non-avian relatives as well.

Two C. bauri casts mounted at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (From Wikimedia Commons)

Two C. bauri casts mounted at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (From Wikimedia Commons)

Compared with birds, the theropod Coelophysis bauri possess a large amount of intraspecific variation. Coelophysis bauri is the type species of the genus Coelophysis, a group of small, slenderly-built, ground-dwelling, bipedal carnivores, that lived approximately 203 million years ago during the latter part of the Triassic Period in what is now the southwestern United States. Using this taxon to interpret development among early dinosaurs, geoscientists Christopher Griffin and Sterling Nesbitt discovered that the earliest dinosaurs had a far higher level of variation in growth patterns between individuals than crocodiles and birds. The presence of scars on the bones left from muscle attachment and marks where bones had fused together helped the researchers assess how mature the animals were compared with their size.

Body size and extinction risk have been found to be related in various vertebrate groups, therefore a high level of variation within a species may be advantageous in an ecologically unstable environment and may have contributed to the early success of dinosaurs relative to many pseudosuchian clades in the latest Triassic and through the End-Triassic Mass Extinction into the Early Jurassic.


Christopher T. Griffin and Sterling J. Nesbitt, Anomalously high variation in postnatal development is ancestral for dinosaurs but lost in birds. PNAS 2016 : 1613813113v1-201613813.

Brusatte SL, Lloyd GT, Wang SC, Norell MA (2014) Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition. Curr Biol 24(20):2386–2392

Puttick, M. N., Thomas, G. H. and Benton, M. J. (2014), HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS. Evolution, 68: 1497–1510. doi: 10.1111/evo.12363 A.

Fossilized dinosaur brain tissue identified

Computer animation of a fossilized dinosaur brain (Credit: University of Manchester)

Computer animation of a fossilized dinosaur brain (Credit: University of Manchester)

Our knowledge of dinosaurian braincases and the structure of their endocranial cavities has a surprisingly long history. The first well-preserved braincase (NHMUK R2501) was found almost 150 years ago in the Isle of Wight and was described as probably belonging to Iguanodon. In 1897, Charles William Andrews – using the same specimen – suggested that dinosaurian brains, and in particular their lobes and surface convolutions, were not closely pressed against the cranial wall. Almost sixty years later, John Ostrom published a study on the anatomy of the hadrosaurian dinosaurs of North America and reinforced the general opinion that they had brains that were not packed tightly within the braincase. Previously, Alfred Romer observed that the interior walls of reptile braincases reflect the shape of the brain at an early state of its development. Now, a team of paleontologists from the University of Cambridge and the University of Western Australia uncovered the first fossilized brain tissue from a dinosaur.

The extraordinary specimen is likely to have belonged to a species related to Iguanodon, which lived around 133 million years ago. It was found in 2004 by fossil hunter Jamie Hiscocks, near Bexhill in Sussex. Fossilized footprints and trackways of Iguanodon-like ornithopods were found at a similar stratigraphic level.

Images of (a) the Bexhill iguanodontian natural endocast specimen and (b) a computed tomography. Scale bar: 10 mm (From Brasier et al., 2016)

Images of (a) the Bexhill iguanodontian natural endocast specimen and (b) a computed tomography. Scale bar: 10 mm (From Brasier et al., 2016)

The natural cranial endocast was unusually well preserved along its dorsolateral flanks, corresponding to the approximate position of the cerebellum. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed detailed structures, interpreted as meningeal fabrics, blood vessels and potentially superficial cortical tissues, which have been replaced by calcium phosphate or moulded by microcrystalline iron carbonate. The meningeal structures show similarities with those seen in crocodiles and birds. The areas occupied by the forebrain lobes and hypothalamus were well developed, so it’s reasonable to suppose that iguanodontian dinosaurs of this type had moderately complex behaviour similar to modern crocodilians.

To preserve soft tissue as phosphate is necessary a locally anoxic environment to promote bacterially mediated mineralization. Under freshwater conditions, eutrophication adds phosphate to the water column in the form of a phosphoric acid series that reduce the pH of the water, rapidly fixing soft tissues, and dissolving the surrounding mineralized tissues. As result, the soft tissues associated with the brain could have been preserved and cast prior to complete burial by sediment (Brasier et al., 2016).


Martin D. Brasier et al.’ Remarkable preservation of brain tissues in an Early Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaur.’ Earth System Evolution and Early Life: a Celebration of the Work of Martin Brasier. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 448. (2016). DOI: 10.1144/SP448.3
Ostrom, J.H. 1961. Cranial anatomy of the hadrosaurian dinosaurs of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 122, 35–196

Owen, Dickens and the ‘invention’ of dinosaurs.

Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892)

Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892)

On 20 February 1824, William Buckland published the first report of a large carnivore animal: the Megalosaurus. He had a piece of a lower jaw, some vertebrae, and fragments of a pelvis, a scapula and hind limbs, probably not all from the same individual. Buckland’s published description was based on specimens in the Ashmolean Museum, in the collection of Gideon Algernon Mantell of Lewes in Sussex and a sacrum donated by Henry Warburton (1784–1858). One year later, the Iguanodon entered in the books of History followed by the description of Hylaeosaurus in 1833. After examined the anatomy of these three genera, Richard Owen recognized that Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, and Hylaeosaurus share several traits that distinguished them from other ancient or living creatures, like their giant size and five fused vertebrae welded to their pelvic girdle. In April 1842, Owen created the “Dinosauria” : “The combination of such characters, some, as it were, from groups now distinct from each other, and all manifested by creatures far surpassing in size the largest of existing reptiles, will, it is presumed, be deemed sufficient ground for establishing a distinct tribe or suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria.“(Richard Owen, “Report on British Fossil Reptiles.” Part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Plymouth, England, 1842)

Megalosaurus sacrum with fused vertebrae (from Buckland 1824, pl. 42).

Megalosaurus sacrum with fused vertebrae (from Buckland 1824, pl. 42).

It was an exciting time full of discoveries and the concept of an ancient Earth became part of the public understanding. The study of the Earth was central to the economic and cultural life of the Victorian Society and Literature influenced the pervasiveness of geological thinking. Mr Venus, the taxidermist in  Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend (1864–65) was slightly based on Richard Owen. By the time when Dickens wrote this novel, Owen was the curator of the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. Our Mutual Friend, also exhibits  traces of the work of Lyell, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, and Darwin. Dickens  also published some of Owen’s work in his periodical, Household Words and All the Year Round.

Owen used his influence with Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband, to propose the financing of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the first known dinosaurs: Megalosaurus, Iguanodon and Hylaeosaurus, for the closure of the first international exposition in modern European history: the Crystal Palace exhibition. About six million people visited the Great Exhibition. Megalosaurus became so popular that is mentioned in Charles Dickens’s novel Bleak House: “Implacable November weather. As much mud in the streets as if the waters had but newly retired from the face of the earth, and it would not be wonderful to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up Holborn Hill.”  It was the first appearance of a dinosaur in popular literature.


Buckland, Adelene , ‘“The Poetry of Science”: Charles Dickens, Geology and Visual and Material Culture in Victorian London’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 35 (2007), 679–94 (p. 680).

Moody, R. T. J., Buffetaut, E., Naish, D.& Martill, D. M. (eds) Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Saurians: A Historical Perspective. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 343, 335–360

RUPKE, N. A. (2009): Richard Owen. Biology without Darwin. University of Chicago Press: 344

Torrens, H. S. (2014), The Isle of Wight and its crucial role in the ‘invention’ of dinosaurs. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 113: 664–676. doi: 10.1111/bij.12341