A Brief Introduction to the Osteology of Viavenator exxoni

Viavenator exxoni, Museo Municipal Argentino Urquiza

The Abelisauridae is the best-known carnivorous dinosaur group from Gondwana. Their fossil remains have been recovered in Argentina, Brazil, Morocco, Niger, Libya, Madagascar, India, and France. These theropods exhibit spectacular cranial ornamentation in the form of horns and spikes and strongly reduced forelimbs and hands. The group was erected by Jose Bonaparte with the description of  Abelisaurus comahuensis, and includes: Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, Ekrixinatosaurus novasi, Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, Eoabelisaurus and Viavenator exxoni

The holotype of Viavenator exxoni (MAU-Pv-LI-530) was found in the outcrops of the Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous), northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Viavenator series of autapomorphies are: transversely compressed parietal depressions on both sides of the supraoccipital crest; ventral edges of the paraoccipital processes located above the level of the dorsal edge of the occipital condyle; basioccipital-opisthotic complex about two and a half times the width and almost twice the height of the occipital condyle, in posterior view; well-developed crest below the occipital condyle; deeply excavated and sub-circular basisphenoidal recess; basipterygoid processes horizontally placed with respect to the cranial roof and located slightly dorsally to the basal tubera; mid and posterior cervical centra with slightly convex lateral and ventral surfaces; presence of an interspinous accessory articular system in middle and posterior dorsal vertebrae; presence of a pair of pneumatic foramina within the prespinal fossa in anterior caudal vertebrae; distal end of the scapular blade posteriorly curved.

Figure 1. Rendering of the type braincase of Viavenator exxoni (MAU-Pv-LI-530) in dorsal (A,B), and right lateral (C,D) view. Adapted from Carabajal y Filippi, 2017.

Viavenator presents highly-derived postcranial characters, and a relatively plesiomorphic skull in comparison with Carnotaurus and Aucasaurus. Cranial elements of this specimen include the complete neurocranium: frontals, parietals, sphenethmoids, orbitosphenoids, laterosphenoids, prootics, opisthotics, supraoccipital, exoccipitals, basioccipital, parasphenoids and basisphenoids. The plesiomorphic traits of the skull of Viavenator are mainly related with the anatomy of frontals, wich lack osseous prominences such as domes or horns. The dorsal surface of the frontals exhibits an ornamentation that consists of pits and sinuous furrows and ridges, although it is not well-preserved. The  exoccipitals form the lateral and possibly the laterodorsal margins of the foramen magnum, as apparently occurs in Carnotaurus. 

Vertebrae of Viavenator exxoni. Scale bar: 5 cm. From Filippi et al., 2017),

The postcranial skeleton of Viavenator is represented by eight cervical vertebrae (the atlas; seven dorsal vertebrate, four of them articulated; twelve caudal vertebrae); ribs; gastralias; one chevron; scapulocoracoid; ischium foot; and fibulae. The atlas is similar to that of Carnotaurus, though less robust and anteroposteriorly shorter; and there  are not observed prezygapophyseal facets in the neurapophyses, so it is inferred that the proatlas was absent, as also occurs in Carnotaurus and Majungasaurus. The shape of the epipophyses of the cervical region, which are
characterized by anterior and posterior projections, is shared by Viavenator and Carnotaurus, but it is not present in pre-Santonian forms such as Ilokelesia and Skorpiovenator. The derived vertebral characters of Viavenator are linked with an increase in the structural rigidity of the vertebral column, and with an increase in the cursorial abilities of these abelisaurids. This combination of plesiomorphic and derived traits suggests that Viavenator is a transitional form.



Filippi, L.S., Méndez, A.H., Gianechini, F.A., Juárez Valieri, Rubé.D., Garrido, A.C., Osteology of Viavenator exxoni (Abelisauridae; Furileusauria) from the Bajo de la Carpa Formation, NW Patagonia, Argentina, Cretaceous Research (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2017.07.019.

Leonardo S. Filippi, Ariel H. Méndez, Rubén D. Juárez Valieri and Alberto C. Garrido (2016). «A new brachyrostran with hypertrophied axial structures reveals an unexpected radiation of latest Cretaceous abelisaurids». Cretaceous Research 61: 209-219. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.12.018

Paulina-Carabajal, A., Filippi, L., Neuroanatomy of the abelisaurid theropod Viavenator: The most complete reconstruction of a cranial endocast and inner ear for a South American representative of the clade, Cretaceous Research (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2017.06.013



A brief introduction to the Carnotaurus family tree.


Skull and neck of Carnotaurus sastrei

Skull and neck of Carnotaurus sastrei (From Novas et al., 2013)

The Abelisauridae represents the best-known carnivorous dinosaur group from Gondwana. Their fossil remains have been recovered in Argentina, Brazil, Morocco, Niger, Libya, Madagascar, India, and France. The oldest records of abelisauroid theropods are from the Early Jurassic. These ceratosaurian theropods exhibit spectacular cranial ornamentation in the form of horns and spikes; and strongly reduced forelimbs and hands. The group was erected by Jose Bonaparte with the description of  Abelisaurus Comahuensis. Although represented by relatively well-known skeletons, the phylogenetic relationships within abelisaurids remain debated. The Argentinean record of abelisauroid theropods begins in the Middle Jurassic (Eoabelisaurus mefi) and spans most of the Late Cretaceous, from Cenomanian (Ilokelesia, Xenotarsosaurus, and Ekrixinatosaurus) to Campanian–Maastrichtian (Abelisaurus, Carnotaurus, Aucasaurus, and Noasaurus).

Abelisauroidea has been divided into two main branches: the Noasauridae and the Abelisauridae. The Noasauridae are known from Cretaceous beds in northern Argentina, Madagascar, India, and Niger. They are small and slender with sizes that range from 1 to 3 metres in length. The best-preserved and most complete noasaurid is Masiakasaurus knopfleri from the Maastrichtian of Madagascar. The Abelisaurids are medium to large, robust animals, such as the Carnotaurus and the Majungasaurus of Madagascar. The group exhibits short, round snouts; thickened teeth; short, stocky arms; and highly reduced forearms.

Masiakasaurus on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Masiakasaurus on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Carnotaurus sastrei is the most advanced member of Abelisauridae. It was collected in the lower section of La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina, by an expedition led by Argentinian paleontologist José Bonaparte. In 1985, Bonaparte published a note presenting Carnotaurus sastrei as a new genus and species and briefly describing the skull and lower jaw. The skull of Carnotaurus is complete, measuring 60 cm from the tip of the premaxillae to the distal tip of the paroccipital process. The most distinctive features of Carnotaurus are the two robust conical horns that extend from the frontals. The horns are dorsoventrally compressed, and 146 mm long on both sides. The dorsal surface of each horn is ornamented with a series of longitudinal grooves. Because relatively few abelisaurid braincases are known, the description of the Carnotaurus braincase is important for understanding the variability of this structure within the clade (Carabajal 2011). C. sastrei would have had a comparatively weak muscle-driven bite.

The forelimbs of Carnotaurus show an extreme reduction, proportionally greater than the reduction observed in tyrannosaurids, although the radius, ulna and humerus are very robust. The hand has four digits, including a large, conical-shaped metacarpal IV lacking an articulation for a phalanx.



Novas, F.E., et al., Evolution of the carnivorous dinosaurs during the Cretaceous: The evidence from Patagonia, Cretaceous Research (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2013.04.001

Bonaparte, José F.; Novas, Fernando E.; Coria, Rodolfo A. (1990). “Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the Middle Cretaceous of Patagonia”, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 416.

Mazzetta, Gerardo V.; Fariña, Richard A.; Vizcaíno, Sergio F. (1998). “On the palaeobiology of the South American horned theropod Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte”, Gaia 15: 185–192.

Ruiz, Javier; Torices, Angélica; Serrano, Humberto; López, Valle (2011). “The hand structure of Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda, Abelisauridae): implications for hand diversity and evolution in abelisaurids”. Palaeontology 54 (6): 1271–1277.