The iconic Velociraptor mongoliensis, described by Osborn in 1924, belongs to the Dromaeosauridae, a family of highly derived small to mid-sized theropod dinosaurs closely related to birds. Their fossils have been found in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, South America and Antarctica. They first appeared in the mid-Jurassic Period, but their fossil record in North America is very poor near the time of their extinction prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The group is characterized by the presence of long, three-fingered forelimbs that ended in sharp, trenchant claws and a tail stiffened by the elongated prezygapophyses.
The description of Dineobellator notohesperus, a new specimen discovered in 2008 in New Mexico, offers a glimpse into the biodiversity of Dromaeosaurids at the end of the Cretaceous. The generic name is derived from the Navajo word Diné, in reference to the people of the Navajo Nation, and the Latin suffix bellator, meaning warrior. The specific name is derived from the Greek word noto, meaning southern, or south; and the Greek word hesper, meaning western.
The holotype (SMP VP-2430), similar in size to Velociraptor and Saurornitholestes, includes elements of the skull, axial, and appendicular skeleton. The nearly complete right humerus measures 185.78 mm, with an estimated total length of 215 mm. The presence of quill knobs in Dineobellator provides further evidence for feathers throughout Dromaeosauridae. This new specimen co-existed with numerous other theropods, including caenagnathids, ornithomimids, troodontids, and tyrannosaurids.
Dineobellator exhibits some features in the forelimbs that suggest greater strength capabilities in flexion, in conjunction with a relatively tighter grip strength in the manual claws, while the possession of opisthocoelous proximal caudal vertebrae may have increased the agility of Dineobellator and thus may have implications for its predatory behavior, particularly with respect to the pursuit of prey.
Jasinski, S.E., Sullivan, R.M. & Dodson, P. New Dromaeosaurid Dinosaur (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from New Mexico and Biodiversity of Dromaeosaurids at the end of the Cretaceous. Sci Rep 10, 5105 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61480-7
Senter, P., Kirkland, J. I., DeBlieux, D. D., Madsen, S. & Toth, N. New dromaeosaurids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Utah, and the evolution of the dromaeosaurid tail. PLoS One 7, e36790 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036790
Osborn, Henry F. (1924a). “Three new Theropoda, Protoceratops zone, central Mongolia”. American Museum Novitates. 144: 1–12. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/3223