The nineteen century was the “golden age” of Geology. The Industrial Revolution ushered a period of canal digging and major quarrying operations. These activities exposed sedimentary strata and fossils, and the study of the Earth became central to the economic and cultural life of Great Britain. The most popular aspect of geology was the collecting of fossils and minerals and the nineteenth-century geology, often perceived as the sport of gentlemen,was in fact, “reliant on all classes”. Women were free to take part in collecting fossils and mineral specimens, and they were allowed to attend lectures but they were barred from membership in scientific societies. It was common for male scientists to have women assistants, but most of them went unacknowledged and become lost to history. However, some women found the way to avoid that fate. One of those women was Elizabeth Anderson Gray.
Born in Alloway, Ayrshire, on February 21, 1831, Elizabeth Anderson Gray is considered as one of the foremost Scottish fossil collectors of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She had little formal schooling but as a girl joined her father, Thomas Anderson, in his hobby of fossil collecting. In 1856, she married a Glasgow banker, Robert Gray, co-founder of The Natural History Society of Glasgow. She took a geology course for women at Glasgow University and she trained her children to document their findings too. She was also friend of Jane Longstaff, a British malacologist and expert in fossil gastropods of the Palaeozoic. The Gray collections, considered important in studies of Ordovician fauna, were sold to institutions. In 1920 a major part of the collection was acquired by the British Museum for £2250. Charles Lapworth, in his work on the ‘Girvan Succession’ referred extensively to E. Gray’s collection in his stratigraphical correlations.
In 1900, Elizabeth Gray was made an honorary member of the Geological Society of Glasgow for her many contributions, and in 1903, she was awarded the Murchison geological fund in recognition of her skilful services to geological science. She continued gathering fossils until her death on 1924.
BUREK, C. V. & HIGGS, B. (eds) The Role of Women in the History of Geology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 281, 1–8. DOI: 10.1144/SP281.1.
M. R. S. Creese (2007), Fossil hunters, a cave explorer and a rock analyst: notes on some early women contributors to geology, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 281, 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP281.3