Introducing Caihong juji

Caihong juji holotype specimen (Hu, et al., 2018)

Over the last 10 years, theropod dinosaurs from the Middle-Late Jurassic Yanliao Biota have offered rare glimpses of the early paravian evolution and particularly the origin of birds. The first discovered Yanliao non-scansoriopterygid theropod was Anchiornis huxleyi, and since then several other extremely similar species have also been reported. Caihong juji, a newly discovered Yanliao specimen, exhibits an array of osteological features, plumage characteristics, and putative melanosome morphologies not previously seen in other Paraves. The name Caihong is from the Mandarin ‘Caihong’ (rainbow). The specific name, juji is from the Mandarin ‘ju’ (big) and ‘ji’ (crest), referring to the animal’s prominent lacrimal crests.

The holotype (PMoL-B00175) is a small, articulated skeleton with fossilized soft tissues, preserved in slab and counter slab, collected by a local farmer from Qinglong County, Hebei Province, China, and acquired by the Paleontological Museum of Liaoning in February, 2014. The specimen (estimated to be ~400 mm in total skeletal body length with a body mass of ~475 g) exhibits the following autapomorphies within Paraves: accessory fenestra posteroventral to promaxillary fenestra, lacrimal with prominent dorsolaterally oriented crests, robust dentary with anterior tip dorsoventrally deeper than its midsection and short ilium.

Caihong juji differs from Anchiornis huxleyi in having a shallow skull with a long snout, forelimb proportionally short, and forearm proportionally long. Caihong also resembles basal troodontids and to a lesser degree basal dromaeosaurids in dental features (anterior teeth are slender and closely packed, but middle and posterior teeth are more stout and sparsely spaced; and serrations are absent in the premaxilla and anterior maxilla).

Platelet-like nanostructures in Caihong juji and melanosomes in iridescent extant feathers (Hu, et al., 2018)

Feathers are well preserved over the body, but in some cases, they are too densely preserved to display both gross and fine morphological features. The contour feathers are proportionally longer than those of other known non-avialan theropods. The tail feathers resemble those of Archaeopteryx, and the troodontid Jinfengopteryx in having large rectrices attaching to either side of the caudal series forming a frond-shaped tail, a feature that has been suggested to represent a synapomorphy for the Avialae.

But, the most remarkable feature observed in Caihong, is the presence of some nanostructures preserved in the head, chest, and parts of its tail, that have been identified as melanosomes. They are long, flat, and organized into sheets, with a pattern similar of those of the iridescent throat feathers of hummingbirds.

Recovered as a basal deinonychosaur, Caihong shows the earliest asymmetrical feathers and proportionally long forearms in the theropod fossil record wich indicates locomotor differences among closely related Jurassic paravians and has implications for understanding the evolution of flight-related features.


Hu, et al. A bony-crested Jurassic dinosaur with evidence of iridescent plumage highlights complexity in early paravian evolution. Nature (2018) doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02515-y

Godefroit, P. et al. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds. Nature 498, 359–362 (2013).


The last terror birds

Skeleton of the terror bird Titanis walleri at the Florida Museum of Natural History.

In 1887, Florentino Ameghino, the “father of Argentinian Palaeontology”, described a large, toothless jaw from the Miocene of the Province of Santa Cruz, naming it Phorusrhacos longissimus and assigning it to a new family of edentulous mammal. He used this finding as a critical evidence for his contention that modern mammalian lineages originated in Argentina and later spread across the globe. Four years later, Moreno and Mercerat recognized for the first time that the mandible described by Ameghino was really that of a bird.

The Phorusrhacidae, the so-called “terror birds”, were a group of medium-to large sized extinct ground-dwelling birds, which lived during the Cenozoic, and became the dominant carnivores of South America while it was an isolated continent. They are characterized by their elongated hindlimbs, narrow pelvis, reduced forelimbs, and their huge skull with their tall, long, narrow, and hollow beaks ended in a hook. Kelenken guillermoi, is the largest known phorusrhacid and lived in the Miocene of Argentina. The skull reaches a length of 71.6 cm and the whole animal would reach 3 m high. Kelenken is also represented by a tarsometatarsus and a broken phalanx and proceeds from the locality of Comallo (Río Negro Province, Argentina). Titanis walleri, lived during the Pliocene and Pleistocene of North America. It was 2.5 metres tall and weighed approximately 150 kilograms. This giant bird is interpreted as an early immigrant during the Great American Interchange.

Proximal portion of the left humerus of Psilopterus sp. Caudal, b ventral, c cranial and d dorsal views (From Jones et. al., 2017)

At the end of the Pliocene, Phorusrhacids decline in diversity. Two new specimens support the hypothesis that the latest geologic occurrence of the Phorusrhacidae comes from late Pleistocene sediments of Uruguay. The remains comprise the distal portion of right tarsometatarsus and a left humerus; the latter is assigned to the genus Psilopterus. The first material (MPAB-520) comes from Soriano, Uruguay, and the sediments belong to the Dolores Formation (Lujanian Stage-Age, late Pleistocene/early Holocene). The following features identify the specimen as a phorusrhacid bird. (1) a large and distally expanded trochlea metatarsi III; (2) a very narrow trochlea metatarsi II with the articular surface transversally convex and without any longitudinal sulcus (in dorsal and distal views); (3) in dorsal view the trochlea metatarsi II is almost parallel and much shorter than the middle trochlea, and forming a narrow notch between trochleae II and III. The second material consists of a left humerus without distal epiphysis belonged to Museo Paleontológico Alejandro Berro (MPAB-2024).

There are two explanatory hypotheses proposed for the decline of the terror birds: environmental reasons or direct competition (at least for the larger specimens) with placental carnivore’s immigrants to South America after the setting of the Panamanian bridge. 



Jones, W., Rinderknecht, A., Alvarenga, H. et al. PalZ (2017), The last terror birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): new evidence from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay,

ALVARENGA, Herculano M.F.  and  HOFLING, Elizabeth. Systematic revision of the Phorusrhacidae (Aves: Ralliformes). Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) [online]. 2003, vol.43, n.4 [cited  2015-03-24], pp. 55-91 .