In the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (~252 Ma), well diversified archosauromorph groups appear for the first time in the fossil record, including aquatic or semi aquatic forms, highly specialized herbivores, and massive predators. Allokotosaurians, meaning “strange reptiles” in Greek, comprise a bizarre suite of herbivorous archosauromorphs with a high disparity of craniodental features.
Shringasaurus indicus, from the early Middle Triassic of India, is a new representative of the Allokotosauria. The generic name is derived from ‘Śṛṅga’ (Shringa), horn (ancient Sanskrit), and ‘sauros’ (σαῦρος), lizard (ancient Greek), referring to the horned skull. The species name ‘indicus’, refers to the country where it was discovered. The holotype ISIR (Indian Statistical Institute, Reptile, India) 780, consist of a partial skull roof (prefrontal, frontal, postfrontal, and parietal) with a pair of large supraorbital horns. The fossil bones have been collected from the Denwa Formation of the Satpura Gondwana Basin. At least seven individuals of different ontogenetic stages were excavated in the same area. Most of them were disarticulated, with exception of a partially articulated skeleton.
Shringasaurus reached a relatively large size (3–4 m of total length) that distinctly exceeds the size range of other Early-Middle Triassic archosauromorphs. This new species shows convergences with sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including the shape of marginal teeth, and a relative long neck.
Shringasaurus has a proportionally small skull with a short, rounded snout and confluent external nares. The premaxilla lacks a prenarial process and has four tooth positions. The prefrontal, nasal, frontal, and postfrontal of each side of the skull are fused to each other in large individuals. But the most striking feature of Shringasaurus indicus is the presence of a pair of large supraorbital horns, ornamented by tangential rugosities and grooves. Individuals of Shringasaurus of different ontogenetic stages indicate the size and robustness of the horns were exacerbated towards the adulthood, with a distinct variability in their orientation and anterior curvature in large individuals. Several amniotes have horns very similar to those of Shringasaurus (e.g. bovid mammals, chamaeleonid lepidosaurs). The independent evolution of similar horn shapes and robustness among different groups can be explained as the result of sexual selection.
Saradee Sengupta, Martín D. Ezcurra and Saswati Bandyopadhyay. 2017. A New Horned and Long-necked Herbivorous Stem-Archosaur from the Middle Triassic of India. Scientific Reports. 7, Article number: 8366. DOI: s41598-017-08658-8
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